Technical Details

Nuturna Powerfull-Strenght Diabetes Support Formula
Key Ingredient Meta-Analysis Information

Nuturna scientifically utilizes high quality, evidence based findings from extensive research studies in the formulation of its products. This international multidisciplinary collaboration now includes contributors from more than 100 eminent academic institutions. The objective and reliable findings of these studies are scientifically peer-reviewed for safety and effectiveness by nutrition clinicians and researchers.

To guarantee that Nuturna products meets our high Quality Control Standards, our formulas are evaluated by physicians and healthcare professionals with clinical experience to ensure that they meet Nuturna’s “Gold Standard” of being the best nutrition product available for people with diabetes.

Nuturna embraces an integrative approach to diabetes care. Our superior quality nutritional supplement is one of the basic foundations for proper diabetes self-management along with diet, exercise, education, monitoring and any medication as directed by the patient’s physician and healthcare team.

The key active ingredients in Nuturna that support improved glucose control includes Alpha-lipoic Acid, Chromium Picolinate, Biotin, Cinnamon, Magnesium, Banaba, Gymnema Sylvestre, Vanadium and Boron. These active ingredients are presented in Nuturna in the appropriate amounts for maximum hypo-glycemic benefit to those with diabetes and pre-diabetes.

Below are some of the peer-reviewed studies to support these key ingredients for improved diabetes control.

ALPHA-LIPOIC ACID

There is strong scientific evidence that alpha lipoic acid may help treat type II diabetes and neuropathy. ALA is one of the most frequently recommended dietary supplements due to its efficacy in reducing high blood sugar levels. Additionally, ALA may protect against cell damage in a variety of conditions including diabetes. Known as the “universal oxidant,” ALA been used for decades for type 2 diabetes and neuropathy including nerve damage resulting from poorly controlled diabetes. Recent clinical studies support ALA’s safe and effective use in improving glucose uptake in cells and improved glucose metabolism.

Molecular Aspects of Alpha-lipoic Acid In The Prevention of Diabetes Complications

Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) and its reduced form, dihydrolipoic acid, are powerful antioxidants. LA scavenges hydroxyl radicals, hypochlorous acid, peroxynitrite, and singlet oxygen. Dihydrolipoic acid also scavenges superoxide and peroxyl radicals and can regenerate thioredoxin, vitamin C, and glutathione, which in turn can recycle vitamin E. There are several possible sources of oxidative stress in diabetes including glycation reactions, decompartmentalization of transition metals, and a shift in the reduced-oxygen status of the diabetic cells. Diabetics have increased levels of lipid hydroperoxides, DNA adducts, and protein carbonyls. Available data strongly suggest that LA, because of its antioxidant properties, is particularly suited to the prevention and/or treatment of diabetic complications that arise from an overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. In addition to its antioxidant properties, LA increases glucose uptake through recruitment of the glucose transporter-4 to plasma membranes, a mechanism that is shared with insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Further, recent trials have demonstrated that LA improves glucose disposal in patients with type II diabetes. In experimental and clinical studies, LA markedly reduced the symptoms of diabetic pathologies, including cataract formation, vascular damage, and polyneuropathy.

Source: Nutrition. 2001 Oct;17(10):888-95. Packer L, Kraemer K, Rimbach G.
Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, 1985 Zonal Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90098-9121, USA.

Improvement of Insulin Sensitivity In Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

After Oral Administration of Alpha-lipoic Acid
BACKGROUND: Amelioration of insulin resistance could improve both glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Alpha-lipoic acid has been shown to improve insulin action after parenteral administration.
OBJECTIVE: the aim of the study was to assess the effect of oral administration of alpha-lipoic acid on insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes.
DESIGN: twelve patients (mean+/-sD; age 52.9+/-9.9 yrs; body mass index 33.9+/-7.4 kg/m(2)) were treated with oral alpha-lipoic acid, 600 mg twice daily over a period of 4 weeks. twelve subjects with normal glucose tolerance served as a control group in terms of insulin sensitivity (Is). Is was measured by a 2h manual hyperinsulinemic (insulin infusion rate-40 mU/m(2 )body surface area/min) euglycemic (blood glucose kept at 5 mmol/l) clamp technique and expressed as a glucose disposal rate (M) and insulin sensitivity index (IsI).
RESULTS: At the end of the treatment period, Is of diabetic patients was significantly increased: M from 3.202+/-1.898 to 5.951+/-2.705 mg/kg/min (mean+/-sD), p<0.01; and IsI from 4.706+/-2.666 to 7.673+/-3.559 mg/kg/min per mIU/l x 100 (mean+/-sD), p CONCLUSION: short-term oral alpha-lipoic acid treatment increases peripheral insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Source: Kamenova P. Department of Diabetology, University Hospital of Endocrinology, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Alpha-lipoic Acid In The Treatment of Diabetes

Alpha-lipoic acid can lower blood sugar levels, and its ability to kill free radicals may help reduce pain, burning, itching, tingling, and numbness in people who have nerve damage caused by diabetes (called peripheral neuropathy).
Alpha-lipoic acid has been used for years for this purpose in Europe, and at least one study found that intravenous (IV) doses of alpha-lipoic acid helped reduce symptoms. However, the evidence indicating that taking alpha-lipoic acid orally will help is weaker. Most studies have been small and poorly designed. One 2006 study did show benefit from taking alpha-lipoic acid for diabetic neuropathy compared to placebo.
Taking alpha-lipoic acid does appear to help another diabetes-related condition called autonomic neuropathy, which affects the nerves supplying the heart. One study found that 73 people with autonomic neuropathy improved when taking 800 mg of alpha-lipoic acid orally compared to placebo.

Source: University of Maryland. http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/alpha-lipoic-000285.htm

The Sensory Symptoms of Diabetic Polyneuropahty are Improved with Alpha-lipoic Acid: The SYDNEY Trial

OBJECTIVE: Because alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), a potent antioxidant, prevents or improves nerve conduction attributes, endoneurial blood flow, and nerve (Na(+) K(+) ATPase activity in experimental diabetes and in humans and may improve positive neuropathic sensory symptoms, in this report we further assess the safety and efficacy of ALA on the Total Symptom Score (TSS), a measure of positive neuropathic sensory symptoms.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Metabolically stable diabetic patients with symptomatic (stage 2) diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) were randomized to a parallel, double-blind study of ALA (600 mg) (n = 60) or placebo (n = 60) infused daily intravenously for 5 days/week for 14 treatments. The primary end point was change of the sum score of daily assessments of severity and duration of TSS. Secondary end points were sum scores of neuropathy signs (NIS), symptoms (NSC), attributes of nerve conduction, quantitative sensation tests (QSTs), and an autonomic test.
RESULTS: At randomization, the groups were not significantly different by the criteria of metabolic control or neuropathic end points. After 14 treatments, the TSS of the ALA group had improved from baseline by an average of 5.7 points and the placebo group by an average of 1.8 points (P < 0.001). Statistically significant improvement from baseline of the ALA, as compared with the placebo group, was also found for each item of the TSS (lancinating and burning pain, asleep numbness and prickling), NIS, one attribute of nerve conduction, and global assessment of efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous racemic ALA, a potent antioxidant, rapidly and to a significant and meaningful degree, improved such positive neuropathic sensory symptoms as pain and several other neuropathic end points. This improvement of symptoms was attributed to improved nerve pathophysiology, not to increased nerve fiber degeneration. Because of its safety profile and its effect on positive neuropathic sensory symptoms and other neuropathic end points, this drug appears to be a useful ancillary treatment for the symptoms of diabetic polyneuropathy.

Source: Diabetes Care. 2003 Mar;26(3):770-6. Ametov AS, Barinov A, Dyck PJ, Hermann R, Kozlova N, Litchy WJ, Low PA, Nehrdich D, Novosadova M, O’Brien PC, Reljanovic M, Samigullin R, Schuette K, Strokov I, Tritschler HJ, Wessel K, Yakhno N, Ziegler D; The SYDNEY Trial Group. Russian Medical Academy for Advanced Studies, Moscow, Russia.

CHROMIUM and BIOTIN

There is good scientific evidence that Chromium and Biotin combined may help treat people with diabetes. There is increasing clinical evidence that diabetics who take the Biotin, a B vitamin, and the essential trace mineral Chromium Picolinate had better blood sugar control. Researchers from Yale University School of Medicine in New Haven, Connecticut, recruited 43 overweight or obese type 2 diabetics with poorly controlled blood sugar who were taking, but not responding well to, oral anti-hyperglycemic drugs. Researchers tested blood sugar control at the start and end of the study and found that those who had taken biotin and chromium picolinate had an average 9.7% decrease in glucose levels with no significant side effects.

The Role of Chromium Picolinate and Biotin in Diabetics

Chromium picolinate is a nutritional supplement that can help control diabetes. As the name suggests, it is a combination of two different substances: chromium and picolinate. Chromium is a mineral that helps to increase the efficiency of insulin. Insulin being the hormone that controls blood glucose or blood sugar levels. Picolinate is an amino acid derivative that allows the body to use chromium much more readily.

Scientists has known for a long time that chromium is a vital nutrient, but not until chromium was combined with picolinate was a truly effective way of providing supplemental chromium developed. In the body, chromium ( a mineral) takes the form of an ion, which is a particle with an electrical charge. This charge is repelled by the body’s cells, making it difficult for the chromium to enter the cells. That’s where the picolinate comes in, it is a chelator, a substance that can bind with an ion and neutralize its charge. The body’s cells then are able to accept the chromium.

Chromium deficiency has been linked to diabetes. Studies have found chromium supplementation to be helpful for people with type 1 and type 11 diabetes, as well as for women with diabetes that occurs during pregnancy (gestational diabetes).

A study cited by the FDA was conducted by William Cefalu, MD, chief of the division of nutrition and chronic diseases at the Pennington BioMedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System. “Emerging research suggests that 200-1,000 mcg of chromium as chromium picolinate may play an important role in carbohydrate metabolism,” said Cefalu.

Insulin resistance is an epidemic condition that dramatically increases risk for type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease and stroke, estimated to affect one in three Americans, according to The American College of Endocrinology (ACE) and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE).

Although the incidence of type II diabetes is increasing in record numbers, many people don’t yet have diabetes but are at high risk for developing it. Chromium supplements can help in these cases, too. A study directed by William Cefalu, M.D., monitored individuals at risk—people who were moderately obese and had a family history of diabetes. Some people received a placebo; others, 1,000 mcg of chromium picolinate daily. After four months of treatment with chromium, insulin resistance was reduced by 40 percent.[iv] Chromium supplements, therefore, help reverse the underlying disease process that leads to type II diabetes. In other words, they help both prevent and reverse Type II diabetes.

The Effect of Chromium Picolinate and Biotin Supplementation on Glycemic Control in Poorly Controlled Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blinded, Randomized Trial.

BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have shown that the combination of chromium picolinate and biotin significantly enhances glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells and enhances glucose disposal. The present pilot study was conducted to determine if supplementation with chromium picolinate and biotin can improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with suboptimal glycemic control despite use of oral antihyperglycemic agents. METHODS: Forty-three subjects with impaired glycemic control (2-h glucose >200 mg/dL; glycated hemoglobin >or=7%), despite treatments with oral antihyperglycemic agents, were randomized to receive 600 microg of chromium as chromium picolinate and biotin (2 mg/day) (Diachrome(, Nutrition 21, Inc., Purchase, NY) in addition to their prestudy oral antihyperglycemic agent therapy. Measurements of glycemic control and blood lipids were taken at baseline and after 4 weeks.

Source: Diabetes Care. 2003 Mar;26(3):770-6. Ametov AS, Barinov A, Dyck PJ, Hermann R, Kozlova N, Litchy WJ, Low PA, Nehrdich D, Novosadova M, O’Brien PC, Reljanovic M, Samigullin R, Schuette K, Strokov I, Tritschler HJ, Wessel K, Yakhno N, Ziegler D; The SYDNEY Trial Group. Russian Medical Academy for Advanced Studies, Moscow, Russia.

Effects of Chromium Picolinate/Biotin Supplementation with Diabetes Education on Blood Sugar Levels in Type 2 Diabetes

Aims: To determine the effects of diabetes education in combination with chromium picolinate and biotin supplementation on fasting and post-prandial blood glucose levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: An open labeled, 12-week controlled study was conducted to determine the effects of diabetes education with the combination of chromium picolinate (CP) with biotin supplementation on fasting blood glucose (FBG) and PPG levels in people with type 2 DM (N = 23) who were on prescribed oral medications for a least the previous 6 months, HbA1c>7%, and at least a one-year history of type 2 DM. These subjects received a combination of CP (300mcgCR) and biotin (150mcg) twice daily for 3 months. Baseline glucose values were compared to glucose levels at 15 days, 30 days, 60 days and 90 days treatment. Risk factors such as blood pressure, smoking, family history, exercise and body mass index (BMI) were recorded.
Results: Patients given diabetes education and taking the dietary supplement showed a significant decrease in PPG (p<0.01) and FBG (p<0.05) levels at the end of the 3 months supplementation. No significant changes were observed in the BMI and blood pressure. Conclusion: The combination of diabetes education with CP and biotin supplementation is efficacious, and likely useful as a nutritional adjuvant with hypoglycemic medications to help lower elevated blood glucose levels in individuals with diabetes.

Source: Vijaya Juturu, PhD, James R. Komorowski, MS – The Internet Journal of Nutrition and Wellness. 2007, Volume 3, Number 1

Chromium Supplementation of Human Subjects: Effects on Glucose, Insulin, and Lipid Variables.

Seventy-six normal, free-living subjects were given supplements of 200 micrograms chromium (Cr) in the form of chromic chloride or a placebo in a double-blind crossover study with 3-month experimental periods. Twenty of the 76 subjects had serum glucose concentrations greater than or equal to 100 mg/dL 90 minutes after a glucose challenge (1 g glucose per kilogram of body weight). Chromium supplementation significantly decreased (P less than 0.05) the 90-minute glucose concentration of these subjects from 135 +/- 9 to 116 +/- 11 mg/dL; fasting glucose concentrations also decreased significantly. The 90-minute serum glucose levels of the 35 subjects with glucose concentrations less than the fasting serum glucose level were increased significantly by Cr supplementation, from 71 +/- 1 to 81 +/- 4 mg/dL. Fasting and 90-minute serum glucose concentrations of the remaining subjects who displayed 90-minute glucose concentrations greater than fasting levels but less than 100 mg/dL were not affected by Cr supplementation. In this study, immunoreactive serum insulin concentration, body weight, lipids, and other selected clinical variables did not change significantly during Cr supplementation. These data demonstrate that Cr supplementation decreases the serum glucose levels of subjects with 90-minute glucose concentrations greater than or equal to 100 mg/dL following a glucose challenge, increases serum glucose levels of subjects with 90-minute glucose concentrations less than fasting levels, and has no effect on the serum glucose levels of subjects with 90-minute glucose values similar to but greater than fasting levels.

Source: Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, Roginski EE, Mertz W, Glinsmann W. Metabolism. 1983 Sep;32(9):894-9.

Nutritional Factors Influencing the Glucose/Insulin System: Chromium.

Chromium (Cr) improves the glucose/insulin system in subjects with hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, diabetes and hyperlipemia with no detectable effects on control subjects. Chromium improves insulin binding, insulin receptor number, insulin internalization, beta cell sensitivity and insulin receptor enzymes with overall increases in insulin sensitivity. There have been several studies involving Cr supplementation of subjects with NIDDM and/or lipemia and most have reported beneficial effects of Cr on the glucose/insulin system. In a recent study, Chinese subjects with NIDDM were divided into three groups of 60 subjects and supplemented with placebo, 100 or 500 micrograms of Cr as chromium picolinate 2 times per day for 4 months. Improvements in the glucose/insulin system were highly significant in the subjects receiving 500 micrograms twice per day with less or no significant improvements in the subjects receiving 100 micrograms twice per day after 2 and 4 months. In summary, Cr is involved in the control of the glucose/insulin system and the amount, and likely form of chromium, are critical when evaluating the role of chromium in this system.

Source: Anderson RA. Journal American College of Nutrition 1997 Oct;16(5):404-10. Nutrient Requirements and Functions Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705-2350, USA.

Elevated Intakes of Supplemental Chromium Improve Glucose and Insulin Variables in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes.

Chromium is an essential nutrient involved in normal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The chromium requirement is postulated to increase with increased glucose intolerance and diabetes. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the elevated intake of supplemental chromium is involved in the control of type 2 diabetes. Individuals being treated for type 2 diabetes (180 men and women) were divided randomly into three groups and supplemented with: 1) placebo, 2) 1.92 micromol (100 microg) Cr as chromium picolinate two times per day, or 3) 9.6 micromol (500 microg) Cr two times per day. Subjects continued to take their normal medications and were instructed not to change their normal eating and living habits. HbA1c values improved significantly after 2 months in the group receiving 19.2 pmol (1,000 microg) Cr per day and was lower in both chromium groups after 4 months (placebo, 8.5 +/- 0.2%; 3.85 micromol Cr, 7.5 +/- 0.2%; 19.2 micromol Cr, 6.6 +/- 0.1%). Fasting glucose was lower in the 19.2-micromol group after 2 and 4 months (4-month values: placebo, 8.8 +/- 0.3 mmol/l; 19.2 micromol Cr, 7.1 +/- 0.2 mmol/l). Two-hour glucose values were also significantly lower for the subjects consuming 19.2 micromol supplemental Cr after both 2 and 4 months (4-month values: placebo, 12.3 +/- 0.4 mmo/l; 19.2 micromol Cr, 10.5 +/- 0.2 mmol/l). Fasting and 2-h insulin values decreased significantly in both groups receiving supplemental chromium after 2 and 4 months. Plasma total cholesterol also decreased after 4 months in the subjects receiving 19.2 micromol/day Cr. These data demonstrate that supplemental chromium had significant beneficial effects on HbA1c, glucose, insulin, and cholesterol variables in subjects with type 2 diabetes. The beneficial effects of chromium in individuals with diabetes were observed at levels higher than the upper limit of the Estimated Safe and Adequate Daily Dietary Intake.

Source: Diabetes. 1997 Nov: Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, Polansky MM, Cheng N, Chi J, Feng J. Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Maryland 20705-2350, USA.

CINNAMON

Effectiveness of Cinnamon for Lowering Hemoglobin A1C in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

ABSTRACT Purpose: Multiple trials in the past have shown conflicting results of whether cinnamon lowers glucose or hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C). The purpose of this study was to determine whether cinnamon lowers HbA1C in patients with type 2 diabetes. I performed a randomized, controlled trial to evaluate whether daily cinnamon plus usual care versus usual care alone lowers HbA1c. Methods: I randomized 109 type 2 diabetics (HbA1C >7.0) from 3 primary care clinics caring for pediatric, adult, and geriatric patients at a United States military base. Participants were randomly allocated to either usual care with management changes by their primary care physician or usual care with management changes plus cinnamon capsules, 1g daily for 90 days. HbA1c was drawn at baseline and 90 days and compared with intention-to-treat analysis. This study was approved by an institutional review board.
Results: Cinnamon lowered HbA1C 0.83% (95% CI, 0.46–1.20) compared with usual care alone lowering HbA1C 0.37% (95% CI, 0.15–0.59).
Conclusions: Taking cinnamon could be useful for lowering serum HbA1C in type 2 diabetics with HbA1C >7.0 in addition to usual care.

Source: Paul Crawford, MD; From the Nellis Family Medicine Residency, Mike O’Callaghan Federal Hospital, Las Vegas, NV. American Board of Family Medicine. 2009 Sep-Oct;22(5):507-12.

Cinnamon Improves Glucose and Lipids of People With Type 2 Diabetes

OBJECTIVE— The objective of this study was to determine whether cinnamon improves blood glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol levels in people with type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— A total of 60 people with type 2 diabetes, 30 men and 30 women aged 52.2 _ 6.32 years, were divided randomly into six groups. Groups 1, 2, and 3 consumed 1, 3, or 6 g of cinnamon daily, respectively, and groups 4, 5, and 6 were given placebo capsules corresponding to the number of capsules consumed for the three levels of cinnamon. The cinnamon was consumed for 40 days followed by a 20-day washout period.
RESULTS— After 40 days, all three levels of cinnamon reduced the mean fasting serum glucose (18–29%), triglyceride (23–30%), LDL cholesterol (7–27%), and total cholesterol (12–26%) levels; no significant changes were noted in the placebo groups. Changes in HDL cholesterol were not significant.
CONCLUSIONS— The results of this study demonstrate that intake of 1, 3, or 6 g of cinnamon per day reduces serum glucose, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol in people with type 2 diabetes and suggest that the inclusion of cinnamon in the diet of people with type 2 diabetes will reduce risk factors associated with diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

Sources: Diabetes Care; 26:3215–3218, 2003 http://www.diabetesincontrol.com/issues/Issue_306/cinnamondiabcare.pdf

MAGNESIUM

There is good scientific evidence that Magnesium may help treat people with diabetes. The link between diabetes mellitus and magnesium deficiency is well known. A growing body of evidence suggests that magnesium also plays a pivotal role in reducing cardiovascular risks and may be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes itself. Magnesium supplementation has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity. Based on current knowledge, clinicians have good reason to believe that magnesium repletion may play a role in delaying type 2 diabetes onset and potentially in warding off its devastating complications.

Effects of oral magnesium supplementation on glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized double-blind controlled trials.
AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the evidence on the effect of oral magnesium supplementation on glycaemic control in patients with Type 2 diabetes.
METHODS: We searched the electronic databases of medline, embase and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register up to January 2005. We identified nine randomized double-blind controlled trials with a total of 370 patients with Type 2 diabetes and of duration 4-16 weeks. The median dose of oral magnesium supplementation was 15 mmol/day (360 mg/day) in the treatment groups. The primary outcome was glycaemic control, as measured by glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) or fasting blood glucose levels; the secondary outcomes included body mass index, blood pressure (BP) and lipids. Using a random-effects model, we calculated the weighted mean differences (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI).
RESULTS: After a median duration of 12 weeks, the weighted mean post-intervention fasting glucose was significantly lower in the treatment groups compared with the placebo groups [-0.56 mmol/l (95% CI, -1.10 to -0.01); P for heterogeneity = 0.02]. The difference in post-intervention HbA(1c) between magnesium supplementation groups and control groups was not significant [-0.31% (95% CI, -0.81 to 0.19); P for heterogeneity = 0.10]. Neither systolic nor diastolic BP was significantly changed. Magnesium supplementation increased on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels [0.08 mmol/l (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.14); P for heterogeneity = 0.36] but had no effect on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride.
CONCLUSIONS: Oral magnesium supplementation for 4-16 weeks may be effective in reducing plasma fasting glucose levels and raising HDL cholesterol in patients with Type 2 diabetes, although the long-term benefits and safety of magnesium treatment on glycaemic control remain to be determined.

Source: Diabetes Medicine. 2006. Song Y, He K, Levitan EB, Manson JE, Liu S. Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Magnesium Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Men and Women

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We followed 85,060 women and 42,872 men who had no history of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer at baseline. Magnesium intake was evaluated using a validated food frequency questionnaire every 2-4 years. After 18 years of follow-up in women and 12 years in men, we documented 4,085 and 1,333 incident cases of type 2 diabetes, respectively.
RESULTS: After adjusting for age, BMI, physical activity, family history of diabetes, smoking, alcohol consumption, and history of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia at baseline, the relative risk (RR) of type 2 diabetes was 0.66 (95% CI 0.60-0.73; P for trend <0.001) in women and 0.67 (0.56-0.80; P for trend <0.001) in men, comparing the highest with the lowest quintile of total magnesium intake. The RRs remained significant after additional adjustment for dietary variables, including glycemic load, polyunsaturated fat, trans fat, cereal fiber, and processed meat in the multivariate models. The inverse association persisted in subgroup analyses according to BMI, physical activity, and family history of diabetes.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a significant inverse association between magnesium intake and diabetes risk. This study supports the dietary recommendation to increase consumption of major food sources of magnesium, such as whole grains, nuts, and green leafy vegetables.

Sources: Diabetes Care. 2004. Lopez-Ridaura R, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Liu S, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Hu FB. Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.

GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE

There is good scientific evidence that Gymnema may help treat people with diabetes. Gymnema has been studied internationally for almost a century for its positive effect on people with diabetes. Gymnema decreases the amount of sugar that is absorbed from foods, therefore blood sugar levels may not increase as much after meals. Gymnema has been repeatedly shown to lower blood glucose levels and increase insulin absorption.

OVERVIEW
Studies show that Gymnema is a natural treatment for type 2 diabetes. Gymnema has also been shown to be an effective treatment for type 1 diabetes. Case reports and studies involving both humans and animals suggest that it may work in several ways to help control both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Gymnema sylvestre seems to decrease the amounts of sugar that is absorbed from foods therefore blood sugar levels may not increase as much as usual after meals. Gymnema may promote the bodies production of insulin and possibly prompt the pancreas to develop more beta cells, the source of insulin. It may also make body cells more responsive to the insulin that is available.

Gymnema’s effects on glucose in human diabetics was first scientifically confirmed in 1926 when it was demonstrated that the leaves of Gymnema reduced urinary glucose. (K.G. Gharpurey, Indian Medical Gazette 1926; 61: 155). Surprisingly, despite the promise of these early studies, scientific investigations into the effects of Gymnema sylvestre on diabetes was not resumed until 1981 when it was again proved that oral intake of the dried leaves of gymnema brings down blood glucose and raises blood insulin levels. This was demonstrated with an oral glucose tolerance test in diabetic animals and human volunteers. It appeared that Gymnema sylvestre was a major discovery in the battle against one of the most common diseases in the world as abnormalities in beta cell number and/or function are directly related to both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.

Later, in 1990, Indian researchers at the University of Madras carried out a study with human volunteers. 22 patients with type 2 diabetes who were non-insulin-dependent were given 400 milligrams of Gymnema extract daily, in two divided doses, in addition to their normal dose of oral hypoglycemics for 18 to 20 months. The participants ages ranged between 40 to 62 years and the duration of diabetes ranged from 1 to 12 years. Over the duration of treatment, Gymnema significantly lowered fasting blood glucose levels (average of 174mg/dl to 124mg/dl). They also had a significant reduction in hemoglobin A1c. (Hemoglobin A1C is tested to monitor the long-term control of diabetes and is increased in the red blood cells of persons with poorly controlled diabetes. From this test clinicians can estimate the average blood glucose level during the preceding two to four months. The target for most people is below 7).

Almost all of the participants were able to reduce their intake of drugs (21 of the 22 participants), and five patients were able to stop their conventional drugs completely, maintaining normal glucose levels with the Gymnema supplements alone. Their Insulin levels also increased significantly compared to those on drugs alone. The authors suggested that this increase in insulin levels was probably due to regeneration or repair of beta cells facilitated by Gymnema. This is in contrast to the diabetic group on drugs alone. Their fasting glucose and hemoglobin A1c had elevated slightly and their drug doses either stayed the same or rose over the trial period. (J. Ethnopharmacol. 1990 Oct; 30(3): 295-300).

These studies demonstrate that the use of Gymnema may result in the need for smaller doses of diabetic drugs in the treatment of diabetes. However, it is important that people with this disease don’t abandon proven ways to manage it, from a healthy diet to regular exercise and medications when needed.


Note: These studies represent some of the recent positive results of clinical research into nutritional therapies for diabetes in addition to usual and customary care under the direction of your physician or healthcare professional. Consumers should always consult their healthcare professional before starting any new diet, product or exercise regimen.

Meta Analysis Study Data Compiled, Written and/or Reviewed By:
Lynda Heberling – Nutrition Consultant, Nuturna Nutrition Science
Sergio Menendez, MD – Board Certified Internal Medicine
Arthur Wright – Founder, Nuturna Nutrition Science